Posts tagged Apple

Apple Buys FoundationDB In A Decisive Break With The Jobs Playbook

(Updated to note the closure of FoundationDB’s GitHub repository.)

This really isn’t Steve Jobs’ Apple anymore. 

According to TechCrunch, Apple just acquired FoundationDB, a relative newcomer to the NoSQL crowd and the first enterprise software company Apple has ever bought. While the acquisition seems weird on one level, it makes sense on another: talent. Apple has struggled to retain top Web and infrastructure engineering talent.

See also: Apple May Have Just Killed An Open-Source Project

By buying FoundationDB, Apple scored a great set of engineers in an area that it must own to be competitive with other data-hungry companies like Google and Facebook.

FoundationDB Who?

FoundationDB, with its “NoSQL, YesACID” mantra, has never managed to generate much of a following. While MongoDB, Cassandra, and Redis headline the multi-faceted database popularity ranking kept by DB-Engines, FoundationDB came in a dismal #115 out of 216 on that list.

It was always going to struggle to catch up, at least in terms of market traction.

Apple, however, doesn’t need a database to sell. Instead, it can use database engineers to help build out the infrastructure behind iTunes, iCloud, and other data-centric services. True, Apple already uses NoSQL databases like MongoDB, Cassandra, and Couchbase (this isn’t a secret—search the company’s job postings and you’ll find plenty of mentions of each of these databases). But there’s always a difference between paying vendor technologies and homegrown technologies.

Apple clearly feels that it needs to have deep database expertise in-house.

Getting Out Of The Database Business

And let’s be clear: By buying FoundationDB, Apple is almost certainly not getting into the database business. Indeed, based on FoundationDB’s community site, it would appear that the NoSQL startup is already gearing up to get out of distributing software.

As the company’s FAQ (removed from the website—you can find a cached version here) indicates, “We have released several FoundationDB language bindings and layers as open source software and anticipate continuing to do so.”

That open sourcery doesn’t look like it has much of a future under Apple.

In fact, it seems that FoundationDB may be getting out of the business of selling software altogether. As the company notes on its community site:

Source: FoundationDB

A New Era For Apple

Of course, those components that FoundationDB open sourced will always remain open. That’s the benefit of open source. [Update, March 25: That may not be true; FoundationDB’s GitHub repository is now private.]

But the real benefit in this deal is for Apple, and for developers. As one engineer close to the company told me: “I’m looking forward to what this means for Apple developers. I’m hoping for a new service rather than CloudKit enhancements.”

As he intimates, the acquisition of FoundationDB could lead not only to improved engineering under the covers of Apple’s products, but also to improved developer services. While it’s doubtful one startup can change Apple’s engineering culture, Apple CEO Tim Cook has already displayed a propensity for openness in a way that Steve Jobs never did. 

At any rate, it’s a start. This is a new Apple, one that may have taken a big step toward improving its data infrastructure engineering team.

Lead photo by Brett Bolkowy

View full post on ReadWrite

Apple May Have Just Killed An Open Source Project

On Tuesday, Apple acquired FoundationDB, an enterprise software company with a major open source component. On Wednesday, that open source component was no more.

See also: Apple Buys FoundationDB In A Decisive Break With The Jobs Playbook

FoundationDB’s GitHub page, which was a bustling open source repository mere hours ago, has now been locked up. “This organization has no public repositories,” a message now reads, indicating that FoundationDB’s new owners have made the project closed source.

Many developers were using FoundationDB’s open source software for database projects when the software was pulled. Unless those developers had made clones of the GitHub repository, the takedown could put their projects at risk. A group of Hacker News commenters dedicated a thread to discovering recent forks of the repository for anyone using it.

“Pulling an open-source project upon which people may depend is total jerk behavior,” one commenter wrote.

According to commenters on a TechCrunch article about the acquisition, neither FoundationDB nor Apple warned anyone using deployed versions of the software that they were about to close the open-source repository. With such warning, developers could have at least cloned the software on their own accounts and continued their work without major interruption.

Developers had no warning that there was anything unstable about FoundationDB’s open source status. Before the Apple acquisition, company’s FAQ stated, “We have released several FoundationDB language bindings and layers as open source software and anticipate continuing to do so.” The FAQ has been pulled, but you can still read it here.

With this move, Apple is indicating that everything FoundationDB has created is for its use alone, regardless of how recently it was intended for everyone’s use. It’s certainly Apple’s right to do so, but there’s nothing nice about it. 

Photo by hans van den berg

View full post on ReadWrite

Apple TV Will Reportedly Get Siri And Apps—But There’s More In Store

Apple wants to jazz up the Apple TV experience, say BuzzFeed sources, but not with an incremental product refresh. According to the report, when the new version of the TV streaming set-top hits the market this summer, it will finally deliver access to the App Store and long-expected Siri voice features.

Apple hasn’t refreshed its Apple TV in more than two years. But the company just slashed the price of its existing third-generation Apple TV from $99 to $69, which it typically does before announcing a new model. 

See also: Amazon Goes All Siri On Your Living Room

The company has been cramming Siri into everything, from its iPads and CarPlay technology to the upcoming Apple Watch. Voice features have become the new black where TVs are concerned, with Amazon’s Fire TV, Google’s Nexus Player, Samsung Smart TVs and Microsoft’s Xbox game console all offering voice search or navigation.

But the real headliner is the App Store integration. The Apple TV set-top box doesn’t currently let users download new apps or channels, limiting them to whatever Apple installed or updated. People have complained for years about this fundamental omission, which kept Apple TV-connected televisions from running the same apps people enjoy on their iPhones or iPads. 

The updated hardware will supposedly feature a new design, a faster processor—probably some version of Apple’s latest A8 chip—more space than the current 8GB of storage and a redesigned remote control, presumably to include a microphone/Siri button. 

See also: Cord-Cutting For Some: HBO Now Launches With A Limited Apple TV Exclusive

The timing makes plenty of sense. The major tech companies have been focusing on television tech intensely over the past year or two, likely fueled—at least in part, if not entirely—by the surprise success of Google’s Chromecast in 2013

Home Alone With HomeKit

That may not be Apple’s end game, however. The BuzzFeed report suggested the new TV box will work with Apple’s HomeKit—the company’s software framework for smart-home devices—in some capacity. Our guess: That may be one of its main points, not an ancillary feature. 

Televisions make for intriguing smart-home command centers. Since voice features and integrations with outside developers are also key to smart-home systems, Apple is presumably doing groundwork for future smart-home initiatives that go beyond living-room entertainment. 

For now, however, the company is likely focusing on just getting its TV products into as many households as possible. To give that effort more juice, it partnered with HBO on the latter’s HBO Now standalone streaming subscription service, which will be available for the first three months exclusively on Apple TV.

Alongside the new box this summer, Apple may also announce a new streaming service that pipes on-demand programming and live TV over the Internet, the Wall Street Journal reports. The service, designed to appeal to cord-cutters, will likely debut in the fall.

View full post on ReadWrite

The Apple Watch Looks Great—But It’s Going To Disappoint Lots Of Users

Guest author Christian Cantrell is a developer, blogger and science fiction author

The Apple Watch looks like an excellent product likely to yield record sales. But no matter how good it is, the device seems destined to become the most unpopular product in Apple’s line-up—one that will top the charts for returns, resale and abandonment.

Compared to the company’s other gadgets, the Apple Watch faces a some formidable hurdles. Fundamental issues—like battery life, complexity and the primary dilemma of convincing people they need a wrist gadget in the first place—represent challenges for all smartwatch makers. But when it comes to Apple, which built its reputation on simplicity and ease of use, consumer expectations quite reasonably soar.

See also: Apple Watch Users: Do You Really Want Flipboard On Your Wrist?

Apple has always been extremely proud of its customer satisfaction scores, yet it’s entering a new product category that will make its usual standard almost impossible to maintain. That could be bad news for developers making long-term investments in the Apple Watch, and for a company accustomed to seemingly limitless success and growth. 

Too Smart For Their Own Good

The fact that watches have been on their way out for a while presents a particular quandary for smartwatch companies.

Technology early adopters tend to skew younger, but in the 16-to-34 year-old demographic, nearly 60% have eschewed watches for phones as their primary timepieces. Millennials and Generation Zs have never known a disconnected lifestyle, and some will likely have difficulty adapting to something weighing down their arms. Even those of us who grew up wearing traditional Japanese or Swiss timepieces may find some unexpected challenges with smartwatches. 

With regular wristwatches, people can check the time with a surreptitious glance. But the Apple Watch’s screen mostly remains off to conserve power—which, despite Apple’s assertions, cements the device as a smartwatch first and a timepiece second. To engage, users must lift their arms or press a button—gestures which may seem intuitive at first, but will lead to the distraction and irritation of errant activations. 

To be fair, others—like Android Wear devices—also suffer from this problem. (Pebble addressed it with an always-on e-paper display; its latest, Pebble Time, just added color to the screen.) But for many users, the Apple Watch will be the very first device they strap to their wrists, so these downsides (along with much higher expectations) will be a much bigger problem for it.

Another key issue: Apple lists an 18-hour battery. In the real world, that likely translates into about 14 hours—especially when the device is new and people want to show it off as much as possible.

That’s not just a very different proposition than the years-long battery life of traditional wristwatches. It’s also lackluster as far as smartwatches go. Typically, most get a day to a day-and-a-half—some even go as long as a week. At least Apple offers a “Power Reserve” mode, which keeps basic timekeeping for up to three days. That’s probably where many Apple Watches will spend a good portion of their time.

For Whom The Watch Ticks

The watch’s complexity will also challenge some early customers. 

Instead of the app grids and folders iOS users are accustomed to, early adopters will face clusters of tappable dots that are, at first, easy to miss with your finger. You can use the “digital crown” (i.e., the scroll wheel) to magnify them, but it’s not obvious, intuitive or convenient. Users also have to acclimate to new inputs and interactions, including long-look notifications, glances, apps, taps, force presses, and when to use the digital crown button versus the side button.  

Some users will deal with the learning curve, but others used to Apple’s typical simplicity will likely find the watch overly confusing. 

Fitness tracking, one of the watch’s featured selling points, may spur another collection of deserters. The Apple Watch offers sapphire-laden sensors for presumably more accurate tracking, but that can’t change one immutable fact: Fitness just doesn’t appeal to everyone.

Even if it did, it has problems retaining users in the long-term. According to a study by Endeavor Partners, as many as one third of the participants who bought a fitness tracker lost interest within six months, and “more than half of U.S. consumers who have owned a modern activity tracker no longer use it.”

Notifications, another marquee smartwatch feature, also present more problems than solutions.   

Personally, I’ve reached “peak notification.” I keep my phone in “do not disturb” mode the majority of the time. Instead of allowing in constant distractions, I pull my phone out when it’s convenient—like when I’m waiting in line or in between tasks. I’m likely not alone. 

See also: Why Phone Notifications Don’t Belong On Your Wrist

Consider it a mental health safeguard: As time goes on, we better understand the detrimental effects of constant disruption on our productivity, and how bright screens affect our sleep. Given that, expect more people to look for ways to reduce the barrage of notifications, rather than make them more accessible. 

Personal, But Not Essential

Apple’s new wearable may be the company’s most “personal” device, as CEO Tim Cook puts it, but it’s not essential. That may be its biggest challenge. At a $350 starting price, it’s a costly item that nobody really needs, but which demands time and energy to maintain.

Unlike necessary tools like smartphones and laptops, the watch’s appeal might have to subsist on novelty for a while, making it more of an extravagance. In that way, it’s similar to the iPad, another Apple device that skeptics call redundant. But the tablet has one advantage that the watch doesn’t: You can use it casually and intermittently. 

I know several people who longer pick up their iPads regularly, but who still use them occasionally at home or for watching movies while traveling. This justifies their continued ownership, although not the purchase of new models. (These are the very people whose behavior resulted in declining iPad sales.)

Prospects for the Apple Watch prospects may be worse. There is no way to just casually use this or any other smartwatch. You are either all in—wearing it every day and charging it every night—or it will end up in your drawer, back at the Apple Store or for sale on eBay. 

That’s not to say Apple didn’t design an excellent smartwatch, one that might actually be the best one around. The build quality alone earns high marks, with options in aluminum, stainless steel and gold. Most will choose between the first two, with prices between $350 to $600. 

But even the lower end of this range still exceeds what most competing smartwatches cost. If someone doesn’t get continued use out of their Apple Watch, that financial investment may loom even larger and discourage future upgrades. 

See also: The Apple Watch Makes Its Play For The One Percent

I still plan on pre-ordering an Apple Watch along with millions of other people. But I can’t be at all sure how long I’ll stick with it.

Photos and product images courtesy of Apple

View full post on ReadWrite

The Apple Watch Could Sell In The Millions—And Yet Still Disappoint

Guest author Christian Cantrell is a developer, blogger and science fiction author

The Apple Watch looks like an excellent product likely to yield record sales. But no matter how good it is, the device seems destined to become the most unpopular product in Apple’s line-up—one that will top the charts for returns, resale and abandonment.

Compared to the company’s other gadgets, the Apple Watch faces a some formidable hurdles. Fundamental issues—like battery life, complexity and the primary dilemma of convincing people they need a wrist gadget in the first place—represent challenges for all smartwatch makers. But when it comes to Apple, which built its reputation on simplicity and ease of use, consumer expectations quite reasonably soar.

See also: Apple Watch Users: Do You Really Want Flipboard On Your Wrist?

Apple has always been extremely proud of its customer satisfaction scores, yet it’s entering a new product category that will make its usual standard almost impossible to maintain. That could be bad news for developers making long-term investments in the Apple Watch, and for a company accustomed to seemingly limitless success and growth. 

Too Smart For Their Own Good

The fact that watches have been on their way out for a while presents a particular quandary for smartwatch companies.

Technology early adopters tend to skew younger, but in the 16-to-34 year-old demographic, nearly 60% have eschewed watches for phones as their primary timepieces. Millennials and Generation Zs have never known a disconnected lifestyle, and some will likely have difficulty adapting to something weighing down their arms. Even those of us who grew up wearing traditional Japanese or Swiss timepieces may find some unexpected challenges with smartwatches. 

With regular wristwatches, people can check the time with a surreptitious glance. But the Apple Watch’s screen mostly remains off to conserve power—which, despite Apple’s assertions, cements the device as a smartwatch first and a timepiece second. To engage, users must lift their arms or press a button—gestures which may seem intuitive at first, but will lead to the distraction and irritation of errant activations. 

To be fair, others—like Android Wear devices—also suffer from this problem. (Pebble addressed it with an always-on e-paper display; its latest, Pebble Time, just added color to the screen.) But for many users, the Apple Watch will be the very first device they strap to their wrists, so these downsides (along with much higher expectations) will be a much bigger problem for it.

Another key issue: Apple lists an 18-hour battery. In the real world, that likely translates into about 14 hours—especially when the device is new and people want to show it off as much as possible.

That’s not just a very different proposition than the years-long battery life of traditional wristwatches. It’s also lackluster as far as smartwatches go. Typically, most get a day to a day-and-a-half—some even go as long as a week. At least Apple offers a “Power Reserve” mode, which keeps basic timekeeping for up to three days. That’s probably where many Apple Watches will spend a good portion of their time.

For Whom The Watch Ticks

The watch’s complexity will also challenge some early customers. 

Instead of the app grids and folders iOS users are accustomed to, early adopters will face clusters of tappable dots that are, at first, easy to miss with your finger. You can use the “digital crown” (i.e., the scroll wheel) to magnify them, but it’s not obvious, intuitive or convenient. Users also have to acclimate to new inputs and interactions, including long-look notifications, glances, apps, taps, force presses, and when to use the digital crown button versus the side button.  

Some users will deal with the learning curve, but others used to Apple’s typical simplicity will likely find the watch overly confusing. 

Fitness tracking, one of the watch’s featured selling points, may spur another collection of deserters. The Apple Watch offers sapphire-laden sensors for presumably more accurate tracking, but that can’t change one immutable fact: Fitness just doesn’t appeal to everyone.

Even if it did, it has problems retaining users in the long-term. According to a study by Endeavor Partners, as many as one third of the participants who bought a fitness tracker lost interest within six months, and “more than half of U.S. consumers who have owned a modern activity tracker no longer use it.”

Notifications, another marquee smartwatch feature, also present more problems than solutions.   

Personally, I’ve reached “peak notification.” I keep my phone in “do not disturb” mode the majority of the time. Instead of allowing in constant distractions, I pull my phone out when it’s convenient—like when I’m waiting in line or in between tasks. I’m likely not alone. 

See also: Why Phone Notifications Don’t Belong On Your Wrist

Consider it a mental health safeguard: As time goes on, we better understand the detrimental effects of constant disruption on our productivity, and how bright screens affect our sleep. Given that, expect more people to look for ways to reduce the barrage of notifications, rather than make them more accessible. 

Personal, But Not Essential

Apple’s new wearable may be the company’s most “personal” device, as CEO Tim Cook puts it, but it’s not essential. That may be its biggest challenge. At a $350 starting price, it’s a costly item that nobody really needs, but which demands time and energy to maintain.

Unlike necessary tools like smartphones and laptops, the watch’s appeal might have to subsist on novelty for a while, making it more of an extravagance. In that way, it’s similar to the iPad, another Apple device that skeptics call redundant. But the tablet has one advantage that the watch doesn’t: You can use it casually and intermittently. 

I know several people who longer pick up their iPads regularly, but who still use them occasionally at home or for watching movies while traveling. This justifies their continued ownership, although not the purchase of new models. (These are the very people whose behavior resulted in declining iPad sales.)

Prospects for the Apple Watch prospects may be worse. There is no way to just casually use this or any other smartwatch. You are either all in—wearing it every day and charging it every night—or it will end up in your drawer, back at the Apple Store or for sale on eBay. 

That’s not to say Apple didn’t design an excellent smartwatch, one that might actually be the best one around. The build quality alone earns high marks, with options in aluminum, stainless steel and gold. Most will choose between the first two, with prices between $350 to $600. 

But even the lower end of this range still exceeds what most competing smartwatches cost. If someone doesn’t get continued use out of their Apple Watch, that financial investment may loom even larger and discourage future upgrades. 

See also: The Apple Watch Makes Its Play For The One Percent

I still plan on pre-ordering an Apple Watch along with millions of other people. But I can’t be at all sure how long I’ll stick with it.

Photos and product images courtesy of Apple

View full post on ReadWrite

Apple Watch Users: Do You Really Want Flipboard On Your Wrist?

Apple Watch

Following Apple’s latest press event, seemingly everyone has come out with a mock-up for what their Apple Watch app will look like

One of the latest is Flipboard, a digital magazine app that collects articles and sets them into a “smartphone magazine” of sorts. According to TechCrunch, the developer doesn’t plan to release a full-fledged version for Apple’s wearable, but instead plans to offer a stripped-down variation befitting a tiny display. 

See also: Why Phone Notifications Don’t Belong On Your Wrist

The approach makes sense for Flipboard, given what it does. But it makes less sense for Watch users, for whom the wrist may not be the ideal place to catch up on the news or any other sort of non-essential information. Consider this the early wave preceding a flood of pointless Watch apps that will soon vie for your arm. 

Have You Flipped?

Flipboard knows it has a slim chance of convincing Apple Watch users to scroll through whole articles on the itty bitty screens strapped to their wrists. 

The Watch’s size and shape—smaller and squarer proportionally than most smartphones—might pose design challenges for some smartphone app developers. Flipboard’s solution involved distilling those stories into smaller summaries or previews that fit on those compact screens. When users see a snippet that interests them, they tap on it to send the entire article to their smartphone, so they can read the full story there. 

Of course, if users want to read Flipboard articles, they would likely do it directly on their phones from the beginning, eliminating the middle man of the Apple Watch. That would then preserve the space on their arms for the most urgent data, such as texts, calls, to-do lists, emails or other important notifications. 

Arguably, that is the smartwatch’s main reason for being—to send (and sometimes, in Apple’s case, even “tap” you) when important matters come up. Even in the news domain, Flipboard has never been about urgency. It offers a “long reads” experience, whereas Yahoo News Digest and The New York Times focus on breaking news. 

Granted, until smart watches become a mainstream hit, no one can be certain about how most consumers will use them. But for now, Flipboard looks like a trifling app, one of the first of many eyebrow-raising approaches that are sure to follow. 

Lead photo via Apple; Mock-up by Flipboard via TechCrunch

View full post on ReadWrite

SearchCap: Google On HTTPS, Apple & Google Deal & Bing With NCAA

Below is what happened in search today, as reported on Search Engine Land and from other places across the web.

The post SearchCap: Google On HTTPS, Apple & Google Deal & Bing With NCAA appeared first on Search Engine Land.



Please visit Search Engine Land for the full article.

View full post on Search Engine Land: News & Info About SEO, PPC, SEM, Search Engines & Search Marketing

Prediction: Apple Will Not Renew Google As Safari Default Search Engine

I’m going to predict that Apple and Google will not renew their Safari default search deal in the US. Both parties now have reasons not to renew. We don’t know precisely when their deal is up but we know it’s this year. Previously, The Information reported that Microsoft and Yahoo…



Please visit Search Engine Land for the full article.

View full post on Search Engine Land: News & Info About SEO, PPC, SEM, Search Engines & Search Marketing

Adobe Announces Solution For Running Marketing Campaigns On Apple Pay and Google Wallet by @mattsouthern

In light of the rise in mobile payment solutions, a tool is on the way to help marketers get their products in front of the growing number of people using those services. These evening, at the Adobe Digital Summit being held throughout the week in Salt Lake City, Adobe announced a strategic partnership with mobile marketing company Vibes. Through this partnership we will begin to see Vibes’ mobile marketing capabilities come to Adobe Marketing Cloud. This means that when you run campaigns in Adobe Marketing Cloud, you will now be able to send branded content (coupons, loyalty cards, etc.) to […]

The post Adobe Announces Solution For Running Marketing Campaigns On Apple Pay and Google Wallet by @mattsouthern appeared first on Search Engine Journal.

View full post on Search Engine Journal

What Did We Just Learn About The Apple Watch? Not Much

We were expecting Apple’s media event to answer all the questions we had about the Apple Watch — but in the end it mostly covered old ground and a few non-wearable announcements. Much of what was said on stage we’d heard six months before, though there are a handful of new details to pore over.

For starters, there’s the simple matter of availability and pricing. Apple will take preorders for its smartwatch starting April 10, and will begin actual sales in nine countries on April 24. It will debut with a range of designs that range in price from $349 to more than $10,000.

The ability to make calls from your wrist is something Apple hadn’t previously mentioned—and which you can’t yet do on Android Wear. Watch owners can use the device’s integrated microphone and speaker to initiate and receive calls—though whether you’ll want to walk down the street talking to your watch is another question.

It sounds like it’s going to be the same as using your iPhone in loudspeaker mode, except you’ll have both hands free to carry groceries or cling on to a subway train pole. With the limited range of the smartwatch’s internal components, you might need your wrist pretty close to your face for it to work—but we’ll know for sure when the first review units arrive.

Assault On The Battery

We also got a new hint on battery life. Apple CEO Tim Cook said the watch will last 18 hours over a variety of activities, although that doesn’t clarify things much beyond the “all-day battery life” phrase he used at the original Apple Watch unveiling last year. And the fine print in the official press release helpful notes that “battery life depends on device settings, usage and other factors.” So again until we get to test the watch out we’ll have to take Apple’s word for it.

[Update, 3:34pm PT: Apple added a new Apple Watch battery-life page to its site that gives some additional details about its claims. Here’s what it says about the 18-hour claim:

All-day battery life is based on 18 hours with the following use: 90 time checks, 90 notifications, 45 minutes of app use, and a 30-minute workout with music playback from Apple Watch via Bluetooth, over the course of 18 hours. Battery life varies by use, configuration, and many other factors; actual results will vary.

The same page notes that charging the Apple Watch should take about 90 minutes to reach 80% battery capacity and 2.5 hours to reach 100%.]

So it’s possible that light users will get a whole day’s use from the Apple Watch, just as they do with their iPhones. Any kind of serious activity, though—making calls, tracking runs, going on an Apple Pay-powered shopping spree—and you might be looking for a charger by the early afternoon.

That’s a big problem for a device designed to be worn constantly, always listening out for input and monitoring your vital statistics at regular intervals. We heard nothing about the rumored low battery mode that some insiders say kicks into action once the battery life dips below a certain level.

Apple VP of technology Kevin Lynch was on hand, as he was in September, to showcase a few different apps, but again this was mostly treading old ground: apps to browse photos, unlock hotel doors and send doodles. We did find out that Apple Watch apps are handled by a separate app built into iOS 8.2, which rolls out from today. If you don’t have an Apple Watch, you can use it to see what you’re missing.

Aside from prices and shipping dates, there was very little in Apple’s Spring Forward showcase that we didn’t already know. We’ll have to wait until April to get the big questions about battery life and day-to-day use answered.

Image via Apple

View full post on ReadWrite

Go to Top
Copyright © 1992-2015, DC2NET All rights reserved